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José de San Martín (1821-1822 / 1822-1823)

He was born in Argentina in 1778. Military and politician, he was the liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru. He studied in Spain and in 1789, he began his military career in the Murcia regiment. He fought in the campaign of Africa in Melilla and Oran. In 1797, for his actions against French in the Pyrenees, he was promoted sub-lieutenant. The next year, his regiment, which participated in the naval battles against the English fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, surrendered in August. He participated also in the Spanish independence war, in the battle of Bailén. On September 12, 1812, he married María de los Remedios de Escalada, a young and pretty lady who belong to one of the distinguished families of the country and fought for the emancipation of his homeland. He organized the Army of the Andes, and was victorious in Chacabuco and Maipú. This lead to the independence of Chile. Then he went to Peru and obtained the Independence of the country on July, 28, 1821. From a high dais on the main square, he declared: "Peru is from now on free and independent by the will of the people and the justice of its cause that God defends.". He waved the red and white flag and was cheered by the crowd. On August 4, he assumed his government with the title of Protector. Because of rivalries and dissents, he resigned from all his duties, leaving to Bolivar the glory of finishing the freedom of Peru. He retired in France, where he died at the age of 72, on August 17, 1850 in the city of Boulogne-sur-Mer.